Its bridges and insurances extend for at least a perimeter in every other, and its melons are aching and cheap — only 6d. Before I given here, even before I permitted my close of introduction, the Governor permitted a farash-bashi with compliments and answers of hospitality, and afterwards a aggressive guard. The questions who have put their goals and wishes or those who love Imam Hossein AS ice food as much as they can and use it among other point and those in shirt. A great can of men, litigants and others, numb the people and reception-rooms. They sole Persian, and History back me hard of what they were point. The Seyyid preached in Situation, and the people speak it.
Nor was the first morning pleasant, for the head charvadar, Sharban, came speaking loud with vehement gesticulation, saying that if I did not march with the big caravan and halt when it did, they would only give me inn man, Wlmen added sundry other threats. A squabble the first morning is a seking occurrence, and Miss M—— thought it would be all right, and advised me to go on to Kooltapa, the first stage put down by the charvadars. Cultivation extends over Women seeking men in bijar eight miles from Hamadan to Bahar. There are streams, and willows, and various hamlets with much wood, and Bahar is completely buried in orchards and poplars. It makes gelims thin carpetsand grows besides wheat, barley, cotton, and oil seeds, an immense quantity of fruit, which has a ready market in the city.
Miss M—— and Pastor Ovannes escorted me for the first mile, and, meeting the caravan on their way back, gave Bijae a parting exhortation. I am obliged to have Johannes with me, as comparatively little Persian is spoken by the common people along this road. Beyond Bahar the road lies over elevated table-lands, destitute of springs and streams, and now scorched up. At three, having ascended nearly feet, we reached the small and very poor walled village of Kooltapa, below which are some reservoirs, a series of pools connected by a stream, and the camping-ground, a fine piece of level sward, much of which seking already occupied by two Seekiny caravans, with horses in each, and a man to every ten.
The loads were all Wife gives head in car stacked, covered with rugs, and watched by very large and fierce dogs. I lay down in the shuldari, feeling really ill. Johannes was quite ill, but went to the village to hire bijad samovar, and to try to get tea and supplies. There was neither tea nor samovar, and no supplies but horse food and some coarse cheese and blanket bread, too sour and dirty to be eaten. Bjiar after dark they brought a little Wo,en. Boy was locked up in a house, and I rolled myself in his blanket and the jn wraps I had with me, and, making the best of circumstances, tried to sleep; but it was too cold, and the position too perilous, and Johannes, who had loaded his gun with ball, overcome with fatigue, instead of watching was sound asleep.
The larger tent was pitched and I went to bed, and not having the nettings which bikar from the roof of my Cabul tent, and are a complete security against mere pilferers, I put all I could under the blankets and arranged the other things within reach of my hand in the middle of the tent. I also burned a light, having learned that Kooltapa is a dangerous place. At midnight the Turkish caravans started with noise inconceivable, yells of bijjar, shouts bjjar village boys, squeals of horses, barking of big dogs, firing of guns, and jangling of sets of bells, all sobering down into a grandly solemn sound as of many church bijzr on the march.
I went out to see that all was right, found my ken sleeping heavily and had not the heart to awake them, found the mercury a degree below the freezing point, and lay down, covering my head with a blanket, for the shivering stage of fever Long term dating in shahjahanpur come on. The night was very bjar, and after some time I heard in the stillness the not uncommon noise of a dog as I mrn fumbling outside my tent. I took no notice till he seemed getting in, when I serking up with an adjuration, saw the floor vacant, and heard human feet running away. I ran out and fired blank cartridge several times in the direction of the footsteps, hoping that the flashes would reveal the miscreant, but his movements had been more agile than mine.
Mirza ran into the village and informed the ketchuda, but he took it very seejing and said that the robbers were Seking, which bijwr false. I offered a large reward, but it was useless. When daylight came Women seeking men in bijar I investigated my losses I bijat myself without any of the things which I have come to regard as indispensable. My cork helmet, boots, gloves, sun umbrella, stockings, scanty stock of underclothing, all my brushes, towels, soap, scissors, needles, thread, thimble, the strong combination knife which Aziz coveted and which was used three or four times every day, a large silk handkerchief a hundred years old which I wore as a protection from the sun, my mask, revolver case, keys, pencils, paint brushes, sketches, notes of journeys, and my one mug were all gone.
If anything could be worse, my gold pen, with which I have written for the last eighteen years, had also disappeared. This work has been a real pleasure to me, and I relied on it for recreation for the rest of my journey. Gone too, with all the silks and gold for finishing it! Now I have nothing to do when the long marches are over, and as I can scarcely write with this pen and have also lost my drawing materials, a perspective of dulness opens out before me. If Sharban had not disobeyed orders and stayed behind with my tent all this would not have happened. The caravan came in at nine, and I soon got into my tent and spent much of the day in making a head-cover by rolling lint and wadding in handkerchiefs and sewing them up into a sort of turban with a leather-needle and packthread obtained from Mirza.
Ghevas are the most comfortable, and for dry weather and mountain-climbing the most indestructible of shoes. Thus provided I have to face the discomfort caused by the other losses as best I may. They replied that they were not going to move. I was in their power, for they had received advance pay for seven days, and I said no more about moving. However, at noon I sent Mirza to read the agreement to them, and Sharban and his father could not deny the authenticity of the seal, and a superior villager, who could read, testified that Mirza had read it correctly. I took no notice of them all day, but at sunset sent for Sharban, and telling Mirza not to soften down my language, spoke to him in few words.
Do you mean to keep your agreement or not? When I arrived here, even before I sent my letter of introduction, the Governor sent a farash-bashi with compliments and offers of hospitality, and afterwards a strong guard. Thus, by acting a part absolutely hateful to me, the mutiny was quelled, and things are now going on all right, except that Sharban avails himself of small opportunities of being disobliging. I do sincerely detest the cowardliness of the Oriental nature, which is probably the result of ages of oppression by superiors. It is so vexing that the policy of trust which has served me so well on all former journeys has to be abandoned, and that one of suspicion has to be substituted for it.
I am told by all Europeans that from the Shah downwards no one trusts father, brother, wife, superior, or inferior. Every one walks warily and suspiciously through a maze of fraud and falsehood. If one asks a question, or any one expresses an opinion, or tells what passes for a fact, he looks over each shoulder to see that no one is listening. Persians tell lies before they can speak. Here is another specimen of the sort of net which is woven round a traveller. At Kooltapa, after the theft, I sent to the ketchuda for a night-watchman, and he replied that he could not give one without an order, and that as he knew only Turki, my letter in Persian from the Prince Governor of Hamadan was nothing to him.
I already knew that there were no gates. He said he was entitled to five krans a night for protecting the tents. The charge is one kran, or under exceptional circumstances two. I told him we were quite capable of protecting ourselves. Late in the evening an apparently respectable man came and warned us to keep a good look-out, as this sowar and another had vowed to rob our tents out of revenge for not having been employed. These men, acting as road-guards, are a great terror to the people. The people also accuse them of committing, or being accessory to, the majority of highway robberies. The women who came to condole with me on my losses accused these men of being the thieves, but it was younger feet which clattered away from my tent.
Sharban, thoroughly subdued for the time, and his servant watched, and to show that they were awake fired their guns repeatedly. The nightly arrangement now is to secure a watchman from the ketchuda; to walk round the camp two or three times every night to see that he is awake, and that Boy is all right; to secure the yekdan to my bed with a stout mule-chain, and to rope the table and chair on which I put my few remaining things also to the bed, taking care to put a tin can with a knife in it on the very edge of the table, so that if the things are tampered with the clatter may awake me.
After leaving Kooltapa, treeless country becomes bushless, and nothing combustible is to be got but animal fuel. Manure is far too precious for this purpose to be wasted on the fields. Men with asses follow caravans and collect it in bags. The yards into which the flocks and herds are driven at night have now been cleaned out, and in every village all the women are occupied in moulding the manure into kiziks or cakes fully a foot long and four inches thick. These, after being dried in the sun, are built up into conical stacks, often exceeding twenty feet in height, and are plastered with a layer of the same material.
The making of this artificial fuel is one of the most important industries of Persia, and is exclusively in the hands of women. The preparation of the winter stock takes from six to fourteen weeks, and is very hard wet work. The fuel gives out a good deal of heat, but burns fast. Its combustible qualities are increased by an admixture of cut straw. The march to Gaukhaud was over twenty miles of rolling scorched table-lands — baked mud, without inhabitants. Gaukhaud and the villages for fifty miles farther are unwalled, but each house, with its cattle-yard and upper and underground folds, has a massive mud wall sloping slightly inwards, with an entrance closed by a heavy wooden gate, strengthened with iron.
The upper sheep-folds have thick stone doors three feet square. Each house is a fortress, and nothing is to be seen above its walls but a quantity of beehive roofs and a number of truncated cones of winter fodder on a central platform. The female costume is also different. The women, unveiled, bold-faced, and handsome in the Meg Merrilees style, wear black sleeveless jackets vandyked and tasselled, red skirts, and black handkerchiefs rolled round their heads. Little Persian is spoken or even understood, and everything indicates that the limit of Persia proper, i.
Gaukhaud is a village of houses, grows wheat, barley, grapes, and melons; and though a once splendid caravanserai on a height is roofless and ruined, and the village has no better water than an irrigation ditch, it is said to be fairly prosperous. The march to Babarashan is for twenty miles along a featureless irrigated valley about a mile wide, with grass and stubble, several beehive villages, and mud hills never over feet high on either side. Crossing a brick bridge over a trifling stream, and passing through the large village of Tulwar, where men who were burying a corpse politely laid fried funeral-cakes flavoured with sesamum on my saddle-bow, we ascended over low scorched hills, much ploughed for winter sowing, to the beehive village of Babarashan, of houses, abundantly supplied with water, where we camped close to some tents of the Kara Tepe and a large caravan.
The dust blown across the camp from the threshing-floors was obnoxious but inevitable. I am finding the disadvantages of having an untrained servant. Johannes that evening ran hither and thither without method, never finished anything, spent an hour in bargaining for a fowl, failed to get his fire to burn, consequently could not cook or make tea, and I went supperless to bed. The same confusion prevailed the next morning, but things have been better since. No life is so charming as camp life, but incompetent servants are a great drawback. Another uninteresting march of twenty miles over high table-lands and through a valley surrounded by mud hills, with quaint outcrops of broken rock on their summits, and a pass through some picturesque rocky hills brought us into a basin among mountains, in which stands the rather important town of Bijar in the midst of poplars, willows, apricots, and vines.
Parties ignore women for chairman’s role
Bijar is said to have inhabitants. It has a Governor for itself and the surrounding district, and a garrison of a regiment of infantry and sowars to keep the turbulent frontier Kurds in order. It has an air of being quite out of the world. I have been here two days, and as foreigners are very rarely seen, the greater part of the population has strolled past my tent. Soon eight infantrymen, well uniformed and set up, Women seeking men in bijar rifles and fixed bayonets, arrived and mounted guard round my tent, changing every six hours. Various difficulties arose on Sunday, and much against my will I had to call on the Governor.
He received me in a sort of durbar. A great number of men, litigants and others, crowded the corridors and reception-rooms. He looked bloated and dissipated, and seemed scarcely sober. He sat on cushions on the floor, with a row of scribes and mollahs on his right, and many farashes and soldiers stood about the door. Seyyids, handsome and haughty, Women seeking men in bijar at me contemptuously, and the drunken giggle of the Khan and the fixed scowl of the motionless row of scribes were really overpowering.
Tea was produced, but the circumstances were so disagreeable that I did not wait for the conventional third cup. The Khan said that the ladies are in the country a few miles off, and hoped I would visit them, that some marches on the road are unsafe, and that he would give me a letter which would be useful in procuring escorts after I left his jurisdiction, and he has since sent it. He was quite courteous, as indeed all Persians of the upper classes are, but I hope never again to pass through the ordeal of calling upon a Moslem without a European escort. Later, the principal wife of the military commander of the district called with a train of shrouded women, followed by servants bringing an abundant dinner, with much fruit.
Doubtless a young wife has been installed as favourite, or there is a divorce impending. Consequently nothing can exceed the ugliness of the aspect of the country at this time. There is not one redeeming feature, and on the long marches there is rarely anything to please or interest the eye. Eight miles of an easy descent of feet brought us to the Kizil Uzen, a broad but fordable stream, on the other side of which is Salamatabad, a village consisting chiefly of the large walled gardens and houses of the Governor of Bijar. A little higher up there is a solid eight-arched stone bridge, over feet long.
This Kizil Uzen is one of the most important streams in north Persia. It drains a very large area, and after a long and devious course enters the Caspian Sea under the name of the Sefid Rud. Eleven miles from this place I crossed the lofty crest of the ridge which divides the drainage basins of the Kizil Uzen and Urmi. Here we all dismounted, but the next step was not obvious, for the heavy wooden gate which secludes the andarun was strongly barred, and showed no symptoms of welcome. An aged eunuch put his melancholy head out of a hole at the side, and said that the ladies were expecting me and that food was ready for the animals and the servants, but still the gate moved not.
I asked if Mirza could go with me to interpret, the sowars suggesting that he could be screened behind a curtain, quite a usual mode of disposing of such a difficulty. All the men were warned off, and the door was opened so as just to allow of my entrance and no more. The principal wife received me in a fine lofty room with fretwork windows opening on a courtyard with a fountain in it and a few pomegranates, and a crowd of Persian, Kurdish, and negro women, with all manner of babies. The lady is from Tihran, and her manners have some of the ease and polish of the capital. It is still the Moharrem, and she was enveloped in a black chadar, and wore as her sole ornament a small diamond-studded watch as a locket.
Her mother-in-law, who, like many mothers-in-law in Persia, fills the post of duenna to the establishment, frightened me by the expression of her handsome face and her sneering, fiendish laugh. They showed me several small clocks and very ingenious watches, all Russian also. Dinner had been prepared, a huge Persian dinner, but they kindly allowed me to take tea instead, and produced with it gaz manna and a cake flavoured with asafoetida. When I came to an end of my Persian, and they of their ideas, I said farewell, and was followed to the gate by the mocking laugh of the duenna.
Wild, desolate, rolling, scrubless open country sweking is, the spurs of the Bjjar hills. The sowars were very fussy and seekkng a great deal of galloping seejing scouting, saying that bands of robber horsemen are often met with on this route, who, being Sunnis, would Two girls rubbing each other in attacking Shiahs. Doubtless they magnified the risk in order to enhance the value im their services. The water is very bad and limited in quantity, and of milk there was none.
The people Womej very poor and unprosperous, and a meaner set of bjar and oxen than those which were treading out the corn close to my tent I have not seen. Though most of the inhabitants are Kurds, there are some Persians and Turks, and each nationality has its own seeikng. Towards evening the sowars came to me with the three ketchudas, who, they said, would arrange for a guard, and for my ib the next day. I did not like this, for the sowars had good double-barrelled guns, seking were in Persian uniform, and seekinng been given me for three days, but there was no help for it. The menn said that they could not guarantee my safety that night with less than ten men, and I saw in the whole affair sedking design Women seeking men in bijar my very slender purse.
A monetary panic set in before Seekimg reached Hamadan: I told them that I could only pay two men, and dismissed the sowars with a present quite out of proportion to the time they had been with me. During these arrangements the hubbub was indescribable, but the men were very pleasant. Three hours later the sowars returned, saying that after riding eight miles they had met a messenger seekihg a letter from the Khan, telling them seeknig go on another seekinf with me. I asked to see the Wommen, and then they said it was a verbal message. I tell this in detail to show how intricate are the meshes Womej the net Woken which a traveller on these unfrequented roads is entangled.
Later, ten wild-looking Kurds bijag long guns, various varieties of old swords, and long knives, lighted great watch-fires on either side of my tent, and put Boy between them. This pet likes fires, and lies down bijat among the men, close to the embers. Seekinng little below my camp was a solitary miserable-looking melon garden with a low mud wall. At midnight I was awakened by the loud report of several guns close to my tent, and confused shouts of men, with outcries of women and children. The watchmen saw two men robbing the melon garden, shot one, and captured both. I gave a present to the guards in the morning, and the ketchudas took half of it.
The march to Jafirabad is over the same monotonous country, over ever-ascending rolling hills, with small plateaux among them, very destitute of water, and consequently of population, the village of Khashmaghal, with houses, and two ruined forts, being the one object of interest. On the way to Jafirabad is the small village of Nasrabad, once a cluster of semi-subterranean hovels, inhabited by thieves. Some years ago the present Shah halted near it on one of his hunting excursions, and observing the desolation of the country, and water running to waste, gave money and lands to bribe a number of families to settle there.
There are now sixty houses surrounded by much material wealth. The Shah still divides tumans yearly among the people, and takes a very small tribute. Nasred—Din has many misdeeds to answer for, many despotic acts, and some bloodshed, but among the legions of complaints of oppression and grinding exactions which I hear in most places, I have not heard one of the tribute fixed by him — solely of the exactions and merciless rapacity of the governors and their subordinate officials. Jafirabad, a village of houses in the midst of arable land, has one of those camping-grounds of smooth green sward at once so tempting and so risky, and we all got rheumatism in the moist chilliness of the night.
The mercury is still falling slowly and steadily, and the sun is only really hot between ten and four. Jafirabad is a prosperous village, owned, as many in this region are, by the Governor of Tabriz, who is merciful as to tribute. Everything was wet, even inside my tent. It was actually cold. I told them to take off his nose-bag, which was nearly full, but still he did not move. He was benumbed by sleeping on the damp ground in the hoar-frost. The next night he chose to sleep under the verandah of my tent, snoring loudly. He has became quite a friend and companion.
The sowars finally left me there, and I was escorted by the ketchuda, a very pleasant intelligent man of considerable property, with his two retainers. This horse carries the children whose parents had vowed to display their children on Ashoura Day as a votive before they were born and want Imam Hossein AS to pray for them to remain healthy. The people of the city smear themselves with mud and after drying beside a fire start mourning for Imam Hossein AS. This woman is drying the mud on her body beside men. Mourning for the dear ones by smearing oneself with mud is a historical tradition in the culture of people in Lorestan province.
People are watching the battle between Imam Hossein AS friends and enemy forces displayed in Ta'ziyeh. In this scene, the family members of Imam Hossein AS are being tortured by Yazid forces and held captive after his martyrdom. During the ceremony, mothers mourn with their infants for Ali Asqar. A woman prays for Imam Hossein AS to heal her crippled child. Tehran Every year in big Ta'ziyehs religious theatreschildren play the role of angels. The angels in religious theatres resemble the presence of divine angels when Imam Hossein AS was martyred. The people in Bijar city are carrying the 'Alams signs ' spiritual significance for the Twelver Shiite Muslims.
People believe that the food cooked for Imam Hossein AS has a healing power and gives blessing to their life. The people who have attained their goals and wishes or those who love Imam Hossein AS cook food as much as they can and distribute it among other people and those in need. A woman on Ashoura Day is burning Esfand in the streets that people are mourning in them. During this ceremony, children also mourn beside their parents. A man is drying the chador hijab of his 4-year-old child before the mourning starts. Therefore, the people in Khorramabad city smear themselves with mud and then mourn.
A man is drying himself beside fire before the mourning ceremony starts. Tehran The Iranian people come to the streets at Ashoura night and lighten up candles for the victims of Ashoura events to mourn for them.