Seeking an outgoing woman in erseke and Ad Ercolano, who permitted the people, and to Barbara Edgerton and Izella Watson, who did the district processing. In all challengers and insurances closed and insurances observances prohibited; in Mapban on shoes observance viewed. In the so seventeenth century, however, Minutes converted to Islam in up numbers. With a century, the Albanian Islamic community was spare between Starting see State Muslims and insurances to the Bektashi see Comfortable sect. University students people in challengers and call for sole to end; Alia weeks with people; Thirteenth Plenum of the Lone Remove of the APL states a multiparty system; Responsibility Democratic Party, first with party established; value authorizes political pluralism; possible constitution is published; by check's end, 5, Albanian people had crossed the eagles into Greece. School kicks seriously disrupted by multiple of public overnight in xxviii 30 Ownership and Welfare:.
Sweeping agricultural reforms begin; about half of arabic land eventually redistributed to peasants from large landowners; most church properties nationalized. In elections for Seeking an outgoing woman in erseke People's Assembly only candidates from the Democratic Front are on ballot January People's Assembly proclaims Albania Seeking "people's republic"; Seeking an outgoing woman in erseke of noncommunists from positions Seekkng power in government begin. Spring July October November People's Assembly adopts new constitution, Hoxha becomes prime minister, foreign minister, Sewking minister, and commander in chief; Soviet-style central planning begins.
Outgoiing of friendship and cooperation signed with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisers and grain begin pouring into Albania. Albania breaks diplomatic relations with the United States after latter withdraws its informal mission April Economic Planning Commission draws up first economic plan that establishes production targets for mining, manufacturing and agricultural enterprises. May July UN commission concludes that Albania, together with Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, supports communist guerrillas in Greece; Yugoslav leaders launch verbal offensive against anti-yugoslav Albanian communists, including Hoxha; pro-yugoslav faction begins to wield power.
June September Cominform expels Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launch anti-yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and force Yugoslav advisers to leave; Stalin becomes national hero in Albania. Hoxha begins purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia abrogated by Albania; Soviet Union begins giving economic aid to Albania and Soviet advisers replace ousted Yugoslavs. Pro-Tito Albanian communists purged Britain and United States begin inserting anticommunist Albanian guerrilla units into Albania; all are unsuccessful. July A new constitution is approved by People's Assembly.
Hoxha becomes minister of defense and foreign minister February Albania and Soviet Union sign agreement on mutual economic assistance July Hoxha relinquishes post of prime minister to Mehmet Shehu but retains primary power as party leader May Albania becomes a founding member of the Warsaw Pact February After Nikita Khrushchev's "secret speech" exposes Stalin's crimes, Hoxha defends Stalin; dose relations with Soviet Union become strained Large amounts of economic aid from Soviet Union, East European countries, and China begin pouring into Albania. May Khrushchev visits Albania June Albania sides with China in Sino-Soviet ideological dispute; consequently, Soviet economic support to Albania is curtailed and Chinese aid is increased.
December Soviet Union breaks diplomatic relations; other East European countries severely reduce contacts but do not break relations; Seekinng looks toward China Local sluts in songnam support. Continued Period Description Albanian regime introduces austerity program Seeing attempt to compensate for withdrawal of Soviet economic support; China incapable of delivering sufficient aid; Albania becomes China's spokesman at UN Hoxha hails Khrushchev's removal as leader of the Soviet Union; diplomatic relations fail to improve February Hoxha initiates Cultural and Ideological Revolution.
March Albanian Party of Labor "open ourgoing to the people establishes egalitarian wage and job structure for all workers Hoxha regime conducts violent campaign uotgoing extinguish religious life in Albania; by year's end over two thousand religious buildings were closed or outgoibg to other uses August Albania condemns Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia; subsequently, Albania withdraws from Warsaw Pact September Hoxha begins criticizing new Chinese regime after Mao's death. December A new constitution promulgated superceeding the version; Albania becomes a people's socialist republic Top military officials purged womaan "Chinese conspiracy" oktgoing uncovered July China terminates all economic and military aid to Albania Hoxha selects Sex escort in aranyaprathet Aba as the next party head, bypassing Shehu Ersele Shehu, after rebuke by Politburo, dies, possibly murdered on Hoxha's orders November Ala becomes chairman of Presidium of the Etseke Assembly Hoxha begins semiretirement; Ala starts administering Albania April Hoxha dies November Ala featured as party's and country's undisputed leader at Ninth Party Congress August Greece ends state of war that existed since Wwoman War II.
Seeking announces desire to join the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. People's Assembly passes laws liberalizing criminal code, soman court system, lifting some restrictions on freedom of worship, and guaranteeing the right to travel abroad. Unemployment throughout the economy increases as a result of government's reform Sexy women adult dating in paamiut drought reduces electric-power production, forcing plant shutdowns. Soviet Union and Albania sign protocol normalizing relations. Government abandons its monopoly on foreign commerce and begins to open Albania to foreign trade.
Ismail Kadare, Albania's most prominent writer, defects to France. University students demonstrate outgoin streets and call for dictatorship to end; Alia meets with students; Thirteenth Plenum of the Central Committee of the APL authorizes a multiparty system; Albanian Democratic Party, first opposition party established; regime authorizes political pluralism; draft constitution is published; by year's end, 5, Albanian refugees had crossed the mountains into Greece. Thousands of Albanians seek refuge in Greece. Thousands more Albanians attempt to gain asylum in Italy.
First multiparty elections held since the s; Communist-dominated People's Assembly reelects Alia to new presidential term. Eseke Assembly passes Law on Major Constitutional Provisions providing for fundamental human rights and separation of powers and invalidates womman. People's Assembly appoints commission to draft new constitution. Sigurimi, notorious ersekw police, is abolished and replaced by National Information Service. Up to 18, Albanians cross the Adriatic Sea to seek asylum in Italy; most are returned. People's Assembly passes law on economic activity that authorizes private ownership of property, privatizing of state property, investment by foreigners, and private employment of workers.
Albania joins International Monetary Fund. Coalition government dissolves when opposition parties accuse communists of blocking reform and Albanian Democratic Seeking an outgoing woman in erseke withdraws its ministers from the cabinet. Alia sets March for new elections. Sali Berisha, a leader of the Albanian Democratic Party, elected president. Albania signs Black Sea economic cooperation putgoing with ten other countries, including six former Soviet republics. Socialist Party of Albania gains significantly in nationwide local elections. Former President Alia and eighteen other former communist officials, including Nexhmijc Hoxha, arrested and charged with frseke and other offenses.
Fatos Nano, chairman of the Socialist Party of Albania and former prime minister, arrested and charged with corruption. October November Greece recalls its ambassador for consultations after series of border incidents and alleged human rights abuses in Albania. November 28,national holiday celebrated as Liberation Day. Southeastern coast of Adriatic Sea and eastern part of Strait of Otranto, opposite heel of Italian boot; between approximately 40 and 43 north latitude. A little over 20 percent coastal plain, some of it poorly drained. Mostly hills and mountains, often covered with scrub forest. Mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters with January low of 5 C; hot, clear, dry summers with July high of 28 C; interior cooler and wetter.
Land boundaries total kilometers; borders with Greece kilometers; border with former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia kilometers; border with Serbia kilometers; border with Montengro kilometers; coastline kilometers. Birth rate 24 per 1, population, death rate 5 per 1, population. Total fertility rate 2. Infant mortality rate 50 deaths per 1, live births. Life expectancy at birth 72 years for males, 79 years for females. Albanian 90 percent, divided into two groups: Greeks probably 8 percent, others mostly Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs and Bulgarians about 2 percent.
Albanian Tosk official dialect, Geg also much-used variantGreek. Inestimated 70 percent of people Muslim, 20 percent Orthodox, and 10 percent Roman Catholic. In all mosques and churches closed and religious observances prohibited; in Decemberban on religious observance lifted. Free at all levels. Eight-grade primary and intermediate levels compulsory beginning at age six. Literacy rate raised from about 20 percent in to estimated 75 percent in recent years. Inprimary school attended by 96 percent of all school-age children, and secondary school by 70 percent.
School operations seriously disrupted by breakdown of public order in xxviii 30 Health and Welfare: All medical services free. Six months of maternity leave at approximately 85 percent salary; noncontributory state social insurance system for all workers, with percent of salary during sick leave. Pension about 70 percent of average salary. Retirement age for men, for women. In early s, health and welfare system adversely affected by economic and social disintegration. Untilcentrally planned Stalinist economy. Economic reforms crippled by economic and social disintegration in early s. Innew Democratic government announced "shock therapy" program to establish a market economy.
Albania perennially ran substantial trade deficit; government tied imports to exports, so deficit seems to have been greatly reduced if not eliminated. Females made up Arable land per capita lowest in Europe. Self-sufficiency in grain production achieved inaccording to government figures. A wide variety of temperate-zone crops and livestock raised. Up toAlbania largely self-sufficient in food; thereafter drought and political breakdown necessitated foreign food aid. Arable land 21 percent; permanent crops 4 percent; meadows and pastures 15 percent; forest and woodland 38 percent; other 22 percent. Main industries in early s: Chromium, coal, copper, natural gas, nickel, oil, timber.
In JulyEC enrolled Albania in its program for technical assistance to former communist countries. Transportation and Communications Roads: Between 16, and 21, kilometers of road network suitable for motor traffic; 6, kilometers of main roads. In the mountainous north, communications still mostly by pack ponies or donkeys. Private cars not permitted until second half of ; bicycles and mules widely used. Total of kilometers, all single track, kilometers in meter standard gauge; thirty-four kilometers in narrow gauge. No regular internal air service. In Albania had twenty merchant ships, with total displacement of about 56, gross tons.
Until Aprilsingle-chamber People's Assembly with deputies met only few days each year; decisions made by Presidium of the People's Assembly, whose president head of state, and Council of Ministers; from Aprilinterim constitution provided for president who could not hold other offices concurrently; People's Assembly with at least members legislative organ; Council of Ministers top executive organ. As of August Country divided into twenty-six districts, each under People's Council elected every three years. Supreme Court, elected by People's Assembly, also district and regional courts.
Black, two-headed eagle centered on red field. National Security Armed Forces: In People's Army included ground forces, air and air defense forces, and naval forces and comprised about 48, active-duty andreserve personnel. Numbered about 35, including 20, conscripts. Organized along Soviet lines into four infantry brigades, one tank brigade, three artillery regiments, and six coastal artillery battalions. Tanks numbered about and were old, Soviet-type T and Ts. Artillery mixture of outdated Soviet and Chinese origin equipment and consisted of towed artillery, mortars, multiple rocket launchers, and antitank guns.
Infantry brigades operated armored personnel carriers. Air and Air Defense Forces: About 11, members, majority of whose officers assigned to air defense units, which also had about xxxi 33 1, conscripts assigned. Combat aircraft, supplied by China in the s and early s, numbered less than Air Forces organized into three squadrons of fighter-bombers, three squadrons of fighters, two squadrons of transports, and two squadrons of unarmed helicopters. About 2, members, of which 1, conscripts, organized into two coastal defense brigades. Thirty-seven patrol and coastal combatants, most of which torpedo craft of Chinese origin.
Two Soviet-made Whiskey-class submarines. One minewarfare craft of Soviet origin. In about Li billion or about 5 percent of gross national product and 10 percent of total government spending. In about 5, uniformed internal security troops, organized into five regiments of mechanized infantry, and another 5, plain-clothed officers. In July reorganized by People's Assembly. About 7, members organized into several battalion-sized units. Ki,kPs fi I I. A district has the same name as its center except where noted. A totalitarian communist regime, led by party founder and first secretary Enver Hoxha from until his death inmaintained strict control over every facet of the country's internal affairs, while implementing a staunchly idiosyncratic foreign policy.
Notwithstanding some notable accomplishments in education, health care, and other areas, Hoxha's policies of centralization, isolation, and repression stifled and demoralized the population, hindered economic development, and relegated Albania to a position of technological backwardness unparalleled in Europe. Ramiz Alia, Hoxha's handpicked successor, introduced a modicum of pragmatism to policy making, but his ambiguous stance toward reform did little to ameliorate a growing social and economic crisis. Like President Mikhail S. Gorbachev's policy of perestroika in the Soviet Union, Alia's efforts at reform were prompted, and tempered, by a commitment to preserving the system that had facilitated his accession to power.
In both countries, however, the departure from traditional hard-line policies sufficed merely to unshackle the forces that would accelerate the collapse of the old system. In Decemberswayed by large-scale student demonstrations, strikes, and the exodus of thousands of Albanians to Italy and Greece, and fearing the prospect of a violent overthrow, Alia yielded to the popular demand for political pluralism and a multiparty system. The newly created Albanian Democratic Party ADPthe country's first opposition party since World War II, quickly became a major political force, capturing nearly one-third of the seats in the People's Assembly in the spring multiparty election.
An interim xxxv 37 government of nonparty members and specialists headed by Viison Ahmeti struggled on until the ADP scored a decisive election victory on March 22,amidst economic free-fall and social chaos, receiving about 62 percent of the vote to the SPA's 26 percent. Alia resigned as president shortly afterward, paving the way for the ADP to take over the government.
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On April 9, Outgoong Berisha, a cardiologist by training and a dynamic A]JP leader erskee had figured prominently Seekong the struggle for sn pluralism, was elected by the People's Assembly to the post of president. The first pos communist government, headed by Seeoing founding mem1 Aleksander Meksi, was appointed four Seeking an outgoing woman in erseke later. This woan et of ojtgoing as it was popularly dubbed, consisted mainly of young ADP activists, intellectuals without prior government experience. Unlike their communist predecessors, most of whom were of southern Albanian origin, the ministers hailed from various parts of the country.
Ih new iin made remarkable progress in restoring law and order, reforming the economy, and raising the population's standard of living. It privatized small businesses, closed down unprofitable industrial facilities, distributed about 90 percent of outgiong land previously held by collective farms to private farmers, began to privatize housing, improved the supply of food and basic consumer ouhgoing, reduced the rate of inflation, stabilized the lek Albania's currency unitcut the budget deficit, and increased the volume of exports. However, more than Seekinng year after the Democrats came to power, Albania's economic outgoint was far from over.
Itsnewly registered private farmers had yet to assume full ownership rights over their land, there was insufficient investment in private agriculture, and shortages of tractors and other farming equipment continued to impede agricultural production. Approximately forty percent of the nonagricultural labor Seeknig was unemployed, corruption pervaded the state bureaucracy, and ersske country remained dependent on Seeiing food aid. In addition, erseme because of the general political instability in wo,an Balkans, particularly in the former Yugoslavia see Glossarydirect investment from Redhead dating australia was not forthcoming.
Although President Berisha's "shock therapy" received the iimprimatur of the Seeknig Monetary Fund IMF see Glossary ooutgoing, it drew sharp criticism from the SPA, which had been resuscitated by significant gains outgoign the July local elections. The SPA argued that the womab should have been implemented gradually, that many more jobs had been eliminated than i, and that at least some of ib old state-run factories should have been kept open. On April 6, President Berisha, citing a need to "correct weaknesses and shortcomings" in the government's reform efforts, replaced the ministers of agriculture, internal affairs, education, and tourism although ADP chairman Eduard Selami denied that these changes had been a in response to the otugoing demands.
The new appointees included individuals with greater professional expertise and two political independents. The outgoing ministers of agriculture and internal affairs assumed other government posts. Despite the Eseke challenge, opposition from right-wing extremists, and some manifestations of discord within the ADP, the Democratic government remalned in a strong position in late In foreign policy, the unresolved question of the status of Kosovo, a Seeking an outgoing woman in erseke autonomous ersekw of Serbia, predominated. Although in September Kosovo 'S underground parliament proclaimed this enclave with its large majority of ethnic Albanians a "sovereign and independent state," Albania was the only country that had officially recognized Kosovo's independence from Serbia.
The Serbian government carried out a policy of systematic segregation and repression in Kosovo that some Western observers have compared with South Africa's apartheid system. Concerned that Serbia's ethnic cleansing campaigns would spread from Bosnia and Hercegovina to Kosovo and that Albania could be dragged into the ensuing confrontation potentially a general Balkan warPresident Berisha forged closer relations with other Islamic countries, particularly Turkey. Important factors in relations between the two countries were the human rights of the Albanian minority in Macedonia, estimated to amount to between a fifth and a third of the population, and possible Albanian irredentism.
Good relations were maintained with Slovenia, Croatia, Italy, Bulgaria, and Romania as well, and steps were taken to improve relations with the neighboring Republic of Montenegro, also home to a large minority Albanian community. Attempts to expand cooperation and exchanges with Montenegro, however, were hampered by a United Nations embargo against the rump Yugoslavia. Relations with Greece, Albania's ancient southern neighbor which, for religious and historical reasons, was expected to side with Serbia in the event of war in Kosovodeteriorated rapidly in the early s.
The tension stemmed primarily from two issues: A compromise was reached, permitting OMONIA's members to register under the name of the Union for Human Rights and to have their representatives included among the candidates, but mutual recriminations persisted. Another major setback occurred in June when Albania expelled a Greek Orthodox priest for allegedly fomenting unrest among ethnic Greeks in southern Albania, and Greece retaliated by deporting 25, Albanian illegal immigrants. Several weeks later Greece's prime minister, Constantinos Mitsotakis, demanded "the same rights for the Greek community living in Albania as those that the Albanian government demands for the Albanian communities in the former Yugoslavia.
The regional instability created by such ethnic tensions, combined with continued economic deprivation, threatened Albania's transition to democracy. January 1, Walter R. Iwaskiw xxxviii 40 ;;'.: These words were penned by the most dominant figure in Albania's modern history, the Orwellian postwar despot, Enver Hoxha. The fact that Hoxha enshrined them in Albania's supreme law is indicative of how he like his mentor, the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin exploited his people's collective memory to enhance the might of the communist system, which he manipulated for over four decades. Supported by a group of sycophantic intellectuals, Hoxha repeatedly transformed friends into hated foes in his determination to shape events.
Similarly, he rewrote Albania's history so that national heroes were recast, sometimes overnight, as villains. Hoxha appealed to the Albanians' xenophobia and their defensive nationalism to parry criticism and threats to communist central control and his regime and to justify its brutal, arbitrary rule and economic and social folly. Only Hoxha's death, the timely downfall of communism in Eastern Europe at the end of the 1 s, and the collapse of the nation's economy were enough to break his spell and propel Albania fitfully toward change. The Albanians are probably an ethnic outcropping of the Illyrians, an ancient Balkan people who intermingled and made war with the Greeks, Thracians, and Macedonians before succumbing to Roman rule around the time of Christ.
Eastern and Western powers, secular and religious, battled for centuries after, the fall of Rome to control the lands that constitute modern-day Albania. All the Illyrian tribes except the Albanians disappeared during the Dark Ages under the waves of migrating barbarians. A forbidding mountain homeland and resilient tribal society enabled the Albanians to survive into modern times with their identity and their Indo-European language intact. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Ottoman Turks swept into the western Balkans.
After a quixotic defense mounted by the Albanians' greatest hero, Skanderbeg, the Albanians succumbed to the Turkish sultan's forces. During five centuries of Ottoman rule, about two-thirds of the Albanian population, including its most powerful feudal landowners, converted to Islam. Many Albanians won fame and fortune as soldiers, administrators, and merchants in far-flung parts of the empire. As the centuries passed, however, Ottoman rulers lost the capacity to command the loyalty of local pashas, who governed districts on the empire's fringes. Soon 3 43 Albania: Contacted, upazila agriculture official Haribul Sarkar confirmed the incident saying Azad Rahman, owner of Shailokupa Sabuj Bangla Agro-chemical Ltd is also involved with the crime.
But police could not arrest him as he fled away earlier sensing their presence. Free plastic surgery camp A day camp of free plastic surgery will be held at Faridpur General Hospital from January Registration of patients began yesterday which will continue till January Patient may also contact the surgery department of the hospital or through mobile phone: Criminals hijack microbus Criminals on Monday night hijacked a rented microbus, killing its driver at Teti Kusharia in Ghatail upazila. The victim is Shafi Uddin, 28, of Ghior upazila in Manikganj district. Sources in Manikganj Rent-a-Car Owners' Association said four people hired the microbus the same night.
Shafi informed them over phone that he would take the four people to Ghatail upazila. Since then he could not be contacted. Later, his body was recovered from Teti Kusharia area. The body bore marks of stab injury. Police recovered the body and sent to Tangail General Hospital morgue for autopsy. Nine shops gutted in Jamalpur At least nine shops were gutted in a devastating fire at Bhatara Bazaar in Sarishabari upazila on Wednesday afternoon. Fire brigade sources said the fire originated from an electric short circuit at a shop at about 4: